The relationship of the type of alleged crime with self-esteem and depressive symptoms in juvenile delinquents
Selma Tural Hesapcioglu
Article No: 7   Article Type :  Brief Report
Objective: Stemmed from the idea of “there is no juvenile delinquent, but rather there are juveniles draged to crime”; the children and adolescents who have been referred to Mus State Hospital Child and Adolescent Psychiatric outpatient clinic with different alleged crime types were examined retrospectively, in terms of depression, self-esteem, and various socio-demographic factors.

Method: The study was conducted retrospectively on children and adolescents who were referred to Mus State Hospital between February 2012 and February 2013 for the purpose of forensic psychiatric examination to assess their criminal responsibility regarding the alleged crimes. The children formed three groups of alleged crime types; theft, malicious wounding and terrorist propaganda. Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale (CSEI) scores were compared.

Results: There was a difference between the CDI and CSEI scores of the groups. In post hoc comparisons, the CDI score of the alleged malicious wounding group was lower than the other two groups. CSEI score was significantly higher than the alleged theft group, and almost significantly higher than the alleged terrorist propaganda group.

Conclusion: It is observed that there is a difference in terms of CDI and CSEI scores between the groups of alleged crime type. In particular, the CDI scores of the alleged malicious wounding group were lower and their self-esteem was higher than the other two groups. This finding suggests that diverse etiologies may have been effective in directing different crime types in juvenile delinquency.
Keywords : Adolescents, children, depression, forensic psychiatry, juvenile delinquency, self esteem
Dusunen Adam The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences 2017;30:331-337
1. Onder A. Criminal Law General Provisions. C.1, Istanbul 1991; 6. (Turkish)

2. Turkish Criminal Code (TCK). (2004) Accessed June 25, 2016. (Turkish)

3. Huskey BL, Tomczak P. Trauma, psychiatric, substance use, and thought disorders among youth in the juvenile justice system and how to deal with them. Juv Fam Court J 2013; 64:29-40. [CrossRef]

4. Nemeroff CB. Paradise lost: The neurobiological and clinical consequences of child abuse and neglect. Neuron 2016; 89:892-909. [CrossRef]

5. Tural-Hesapcioglu S, Altiparmak F. Domestic violence experienced or witnessed during childhood: effects on depressive symptoms, self-esteem and aggression. Turkish Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health 2015; 22:5-16. (Turkish)

6. Church WT, Tomek S, Bolland KAY, Hooper LM, Jaggers J, Bolland JM. A longitudinal examination of predictors of delinquency: an analysis of data from the mobile youth survey. Child Youth Serv Rev 2012; 34:2400-2408. [CrossRef]

7. Muscatello MR, Scimeca G, Pandolfo G, Micò U, Romeo VM, Mallamace D, Mento C, Zoccali R, Bruno A. Executive functions and basic symptoms in adolescent antisocial behavior: a cross-sectional study on an Italian sample of late-onset offenders. Compr Psychiatry 2014; 55:631-638. [CrossRef]

8. Farrington DP, West DJ. The Cambridge study in delinquent development: a long-term follow-up of 411 London males. HJ Kerner, G Kaiser (Editors.). Kriminalität: Personlichkeit, Lebensgeschichte und Verhalten (Criminality: Personality, Behaviour and Life History). Berlin: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1990, 115-138.

9. Farrington DP, Jolliffe D, Loeber R, Stouthamer-Loeber M, Kalb LM. The concentration of offenders in families, and family criminality in the prediction of boys` delinquency. J Adolesc 2001; 24:579-596. [CrossRef]

10. Tural-Hesapcioglu S, Yesilova H. Forensic psychiatric evaluation of children and adolescents in Mus: a view for prevention of delinquency. Journal Forensic Medicine 2012; 26:171-179. (Turkish) [CrossRef]

11. Young S, Taylor E, Gudjonsson G. Childhood predictors of criminal offending: results from a 19-year longitudinal epidemiological study of boys. J Atten Disord 2016; 20:206-213. [CrossRef]

12. van der Put CE, van Vugt ES, Stams GJ, Deković M, van der Laan PH. Differences in the prevalence and impact of risk factors for general recidivism between different types of juveniles who have committed sexual offenses (JSOs) and juveniles who have committed nonsexual offenses (NSOs). Sex Abuse 2013; 25:41-68. [CrossRef]

13. van Wijk APH, Blokland AA J, Duits N, Vermeiren R, Harkink J. Relating psychiatric disorders, offender and offence characteristics in a sample of adolescent sex offenders and non-sex offenders. Crim Behav Ment Health 2007; 17:15-30. [CrossRef]

14. Zakireh B, Ronis ST, Knight RA. Individual beliefs, attitudes, and victimization histories of male juvenile sexual offenders. Sex Abuse 2008; 20:323-351. [CrossRef]

15. Vaughn MG, DeLisi M, Beaver KM, Perron BE, Abdon A. Toward a criminal justice epidemiology: behavioral and physical health of probationers and parolees in the United States. J Crim Justice 2012; 40:165-173. [CrossRef]

16. Phillips MD. Assessing the impact of drug use and drug selling on violent offending in a panel of delinquent youth. J Drug Issues 2012; 42:298-316. [CrossRef]

17. DeLisi M, Angton A, Behnken MP, Kusow AM. Do adolescent drug users fare the worst? Onset type, juvenile delinquency, and criminal careers. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2015; 59:180-195. [CrossRef]

18. Kovacs M. The Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI). Psychopharmacol Bull 1985; 21:995-998.

19. Oy B. Child Depression Inventory: Reliability and validity study. Turk Psikiyatri Derg 1991; 2:132-136.

20. Coopersmith S. Self-esteem inventories. California. Consulting Psychologists Press. 1986

21. Turan N, Tufan B. Validity-reliability study of Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI). Istanbul 23rd National Congress of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 1987. (Turkish)

22. Bilginer C, Tural-Hesapcioglu S, Kandil S. Evaluation of children and adolescents which applied for forensic psychiatric assessment in a university hospital. Turkiye Klinikleri J Foren Med 2012; 9:20-27. (Turkish)

23. Goker Z, Tural-Hesapcioglu S, Sarp KS, Tanriover-Kandil S. Evaluation of psycho–legal subjects admitted to K.T.U child and adolescent psychiatry department at last two years Journal of Forensic Medicine 2006; 20:1-5. (Turkish)

24. Tisak MS, Tisak J, Baker ER, Graupensperger SA. Relations among victimization, witnessing, and perpetration of aggression: impact of gender among youth offenders. J Interpers Violence 2016 Jul 25. [Epub ahead of print] [CrossRef]

25. Hopkins T, Clegg J, Stackhouse J. Young offenders’ perspectives on their literacy and communication skills. Int J Lang Commun Disord 2016; 51:95-109. [CrossRef]

26. Snowling MJ, Adams JW, Bowyer-Crane C, Tobın V. Levels of literacy among juvenile offenders: the incidence of specific reading difficulties. Crim Behav Ment Health 2000; 10:229-241. [CrossRef]

27. Alarid LF, Montemayor CD, Dannhaus S. The effect of parental support on juvenile drug court completion and postprogram recidivism. Youth Violence Juv Justice 2012; 10:354-369. [CrossRef]

28. Baglivio MT, Jackowski K. Examining the validity of a juvenile offending risk assessment instrument across gender and race/ethnicity. Youth Violence Juv Justice 2013; 11:26-43. [CrossRef]

29. Demuth S, Brown SL. Family structure, family processes and adolescent delinquency: the significance of parental absence versus parental gender. J Res Crime Delinq 2004; 41:58-81. [CrossRef]

30. Aida SA, Aili HH, Manveen KS, Salwina WI, Subash KP, Ng CG, Muhsin AZ. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among juvenile offenders in Malaysian prisons and association with socio-demographic and personal factors. Int J Prison Health 2014; 10:132-143. [CrossRef]

31. Wasserman GA, McReynolds LS, Schwalbe CS, Keating JM, Jones SA. Psychiatric disorder, comorbidity, and suicidal behavior in juvenile justice youth. Crim Justice Behav 2010; 37:1361-1376. [CrossRef]

32. Farrington D. Families and Crime. Wilson IQ and Petersilia J (Eds). Crime: Public Policy for Crime Control, 2nd ed., Institute of Contemporary Studies Press, Oakland, CA, 2002: p 129-148.

33. Chassin L. Juvenile justice and substance use. Future Child 2008; 18:165-183. [CrossRef]

34. Helstrom A, Bryan A, Hutchison KE, Riggs PD, Blechman EA. Tobacco and alcohol use as an explanation for the association between externalizing behavior and illicit drug use among delinquent adolescents. Prev Sci 2004; 5:267–277. [CrossRef]

35. Hershberger A, Zapolski T, Aalsma MC. Social support as a buffer between discrimination and cigarette use in juvenile offenders. Addict Behav 2016; 59:7-11. [CrossRef]

36. Svensson R. Strategic offences in the criminal career context. Br J Criminol 2002; 42:395-411. [CrossRef]

37. Harris DA. Age and type of onset of offending: results from a sample of male sexual offenders referred for civil commitment. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2013; 57:1226-1247. [CrossRef]

Creative Commons Lisansı

Dusunen Adam: The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Düşünen Adam - Psikiyatri ve Nörolojik Bilimler Dergisi
Bakırköy Prof. Dr. Mazhar Osman Ruh Sağlığı ve Sinir Hastalıkları Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi
Yerküre Tanıtım ve Yayıncılık Hizmetleri A.Ş.